Stress is a reaction of the human body that arises in response to the action of an irritant, regardless of whether it carries a negative or positive charge. Some people are helped by medications, such as this medication: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/ksalol.
Nowadays one of the most unfavorable consequences of the intense rhythm of life in our society is the increase of stress loads and overstrain. Unfortunately, stress has become the norm of life for most of us. Few people today can boast of mental stability, absence of negative emotions and stable self-control. Loss of mental balance, anxiety, melancholy, dissatisfaction with oneself and one’s life, reduced capacity for work are well known to many. Stressful situations lead to the development of psychosis and neurosis.
The widespread phrase at the beginning of the last century “all diseases are caused by nerves” was transformed into “all diseases are caused by stress”.
According to the World Health Organization, 65% of all diseases is causally related to stress, and some experts believe that in reality the figure is somewhat higher. Many diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular system, digestive organs, malignant neoplasms and others are recognized as psychosomatic.
The problem of stress, in fact, is very old, but the scientific awareness of it occurred only in the early 80s of the last century, which was reflected both in the development of modern human science and in the desire to meet the current needs of society.
The founder of the doctrine of stress is the Canadian scientist Hans Selye. In 1936, a short report by the then unknown physiologist titled “Syndrome Caused by Different Damaging Agents” was published in Nature, in the “Letters to the Editor” section.
While still a second-year medical student at the University of Prague, he drew attention to the obvious fact that various infectious diseases seem to have a number of symptoms in common. These include general malaise, loss of appetite, fever, chills, muscle weakness, aching joints, high blood pressure, and loss of motivation to achieve. The experiments of the young scientist confirmed that not only infections, but also other harmful influences (cooling, burns, wounds, poisoning, etc.), along with the consequences specific to each of them, cause a complex of similar biochemical, physiological and behavioral reactions. Sellier suggested that there is a general unspecific reaction of the organism to any “harm”, aimed at mobilizing the body’s defenses. This reaction he called stress. In modern interpretation the definition of stress is as follows: “non-specific reaction of the organism to any requirement from outside” (G.Selye). Why non-specific? Different influences on the body cause different reactions as a rule: for example, cold causes shivering, and heat causes sweating.
As we can see, the reactions are different (specific), but in any case, one has to adapt to the situation. This need to readjust requires, as Sellier suggests, nonspecific “adaptive energy,” just as “the various household items – heater, refrigerator, bell and lamp, giving heat, cold, sound and light, respectively, depend on a common factor – electricity.”
Stages of stress
Г. Sellier distinguished three stages of stress development:
1. Anxiety reaction, expressed in the mobilization of all resources of the body.
2. Resistance stage, when an organism manages (due to previous mobilization) to cope successfully with harmful influences. During this period, there may be an increase in stress resistance. If the action of harmful factors for a long time can not be eliminated and overcome, the next stage begins.
3. Stage of exhaustion. The body’s adaptive capacities decrease. During this period, it becomes less resistant to new harmful influences, and the risk of disease increases. The onset of the third stage is not necessary. (G. Selye, 1974).
Later he proposed to distinguish between eustress and distress (distress is exhaustion, unhappiness). He began to consider eustress itself as a positive factor, connected with positive experiences, as a source of increasing activity, joy of efforts and successful overcoming. Distress comes with very frequent and prolonged stress associated with negative experiences, with such combinations of unfavorable factors, when there comes neither joy of overcoming, but a feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, awareness of the excessiveness, unbearability and undesirability, hurtful unfairness of the required efforts.
There are certain and biologically poorly understood differences between the stress reactions caused by positive or negative stressors. But both positive and negative stressors are accompanied by an increase in the “rate of wear and tear of the body” (G. Selye).
Causes of stress
Any demand from the outside, or irritant, is called a stressor. An irritant becomes a stressor by virtue of cognitive interpretation, i.e. the meaning a person ascribes to it, rather than affecting the personality directly.
As Sellier put it, “It is not what happens to you that matters, but how you perceive it.
Each stressor acts in its own way, according to the peculiarities of its nature. And the body’s reactions to their action are also very different. The effects of cold and burns, starvation and frostbite, family scandal and earthquake – all these are very different events, which at first glance have nothing in common with each other. But upon closer analysis, behind the diversity of external manifestations, behind the individual “trees” it is possible to discern a common basis, a deep hidden mechanism – the “forest”. This general mechanism of reaction is stress.
Thus. Each stress-response of the organism is a combination of the general (the stress proper) and the special, specific and nonspecific. The specific component of reactions makes it possible to distinguish, separate types of stress, though this division is conditional, as the body equally reacts to stress in general.
Typical symptoms of stress
All signs of stress can be divided into spheres of their manifestation:
Psychophysiological symptoms are.
– Migraine or headaches, fainting spells;
– insomnia, restless sleep or nightmares, excessive sweating;
– dry mouth or aching toothache;
– Muscle tension in the neck, shoulders, or back;
– clenched fists or jaws;
– indefinite pain in all parts of the body;
– high blood pressure,
– too frequent asthma attacks, manifestations of allergies;
– vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, nausea, upset stomach;
– change in food cravings or opening of an ulcer;
– rapid increase or decrease in body weight;
– decreased sex drive;
– fatigue and “exhaustion,” exhaustion;
– subjective sensation of “diminished memory.”
– loss of concentration, mild distractibility, erroneous actions;
– blurred vision of objects, “tunnel vision”;
– loss of initiative, impaired judgment;
– constant negative thoughts, making hasty decisions;
– impulsive thinking.
– Indecisiveness, irritability;
– restlessness, panic and unexplained fear; suspiciousness;
– Inability to concentrate; fidgeting;
– lack of self-confidence and inability to make decisions;
– gloomy mood, up to and including depression;
– exhaustion, lack of enthusiasm, a feeling of aimlessness;
– cynical, inappropriate humor;
– a decrease in life satisfaction, a decrease in self-esteem;
– job dissatisfaction.
– Feeling alienated, restless, or apathetic;
– loss of appetite or overeating;
– loss of interest in the opposite sex;
– impaired speech, trembling of the voice;
– loss of interest in one’s appearance;
– an increase in family problems;
– irrational time management, constant rushing to “nowhere”;
– avoidance of supportive relationships;
– antisocial behavior (alcohol abuse, drug use).