Polygot is a medication that helps with migraine headaches. It contains caffeine and ergotamine.
Polygot enhances the effect of other drugs containing ergot alkaloids and caffeine. Co-use of Polygot and barbiturates, primidone, anticonvulsants – hydantoin derivatives (phenytoin) may increase the metabolism and clearance of caffeine. Co-administration of Polygote and cimetidine, oral contraceptives, disulfiram, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin may decrease the metabolism of caffeine in the liver, slow its excretion and increase blood concentrations.
Overstimulation of the central nervous system may occur if Polygote and agents causing central nervous system stimulation are used together. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist. Mexiletine reduces caffeine excretion by up to 50%; nicotine increases the rate of caffeine excretion. Large doses of caffeine can cause dangerous cardiac arrhythmias or marked increase in blood pressure when taking MAO inhibitors (furazolidone, procarbazine, selegiline). Caffeine reduces absorption of calcium preparations (calcium gluconate, calcium carbonate, combination of calcium and vitamin D) in the gastrointestinal tract.
Polygot reduces the effect of narcotic analgesics and sleeping pills, increases the urinary excretion of lithium preparations (lithium carbonate), accelerates absorption, enhances the effect, increases their toxicity of cardiac glycosides (digoxin, celanide). Concomitant use of Polygote with beta-adrenoblockers (atenololol, metoprolol, nebivolol) may lead to mutual suppression of therapeutic effects; with adrenergic bronchodilators (clenbuterol, salbutamol, phenoterol) – to additional central nervous system stimulation and additive toxic effects.
Caffeine may decrease the clearance of theophylline and aminophylline, increasing the possibility of additive pharmacodynamic and toxic effects. The vasoconstrictor effect of Polygot is enhanced by alpha-adrenergic stimulants, beta-adrenoblockers, serotonin agonists (including sumatriptan) and nicotine. Macrolides (erythromycin, spiramycin, jozamycin, midecamycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin) increase ergotamine toxicity.
Migraine medications are used to relieve the symptoms of the disease-the elimination of severe pain. For migraine with aura, medication can be taken in advance to avoid an attack or mitigate it. All drugs used for migraine can be divided into the main groups:
- Analgesics and anti-inflammatories. Universal pain medications, most of which can be purchased in pharmacies without a prescription. These include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or diclofenac.
- Ergot preparations. The alkaloids in ergot can tone the blood vessels in the brain and inhibit the production of serotonin, which causes migraine pain. In this regard, ergot extract preparations are highly specific antimigraine drugs, practically useless for tension headache and other types. They can be used both directly during the attack to relieve it, and for preventive purposes – courses of up to two weeks. This group of drugs has a number of side effects and contraindications (e.g., not prescribed to patients with coronary heart disease) and is used only by prescription.
- Triptans (5-hydroxytryptamine derivatives). These drugs relieve vasospasm by acting on the vascular wall, blocking the pain signal at the level of trigeminal nerve receptors. Triptans are notable for relieving the symptoms of complicated migraine – light and noise phobia, nausea and vomiting. They are also highly targeted migraine medications.